A subspecies of Homo Sapiens. Homo Sapiens Neanderthalensis is thought to have evolved from Homo Erectus about 100,000 years ago in Europe and the Middle East. This highly intelligent subspecies cultivated an involved culture that included elaborate funeral rituals, burying their dead with ornaments, caring for the sick, and making tools for domestic use and for protection. Homo sapiens neanderthalensis disappeared about 35,000 to 40,000 years ago, in all likelihood as a result of violent conflict with Homo sapiens sapiens (the subspecies of contemporary humans).

Articles on that refer to Neanderthal

The Age of Spiritual Machines: Glossary By Ray Kurzweil
The Transhuman Singularity By Terry Grossman
Nanomedicine By Robert A. Freitas Jr.
Cyber Sapiens By Chip Walter

News Articles that refer to Neanderthal

Could our big brains come from Neanderthals?
Scientists Hope to Unravel Neanderthal DNA
Neanderthals speak out after 30,000 years
Return of the Neanderthals
First draft of Neanderthal genome is unveiled
Sawyer wins Hugo for Hominids
New Species Revealed: Tiny Cousins of Humans
Neanderthal Genome May Be Reconstructed
Ice Age DNA may now be sequenced