Laws of Thermodynamics


Laws of Thermodynamics

The laws of thermodynamics govern how and why energy is transferred. The first law of thermodynamics (postulated by Hermann von Helmholtz in 1847), also called the Law of Conservation of Energy, states that the total amount of energy in the Universe is constant. A process may modify the form of energy, but a closed system does not lose energy. The second law of thermodynamics (articulated by Rudolf Clausias in 1850), also known as the Law of Increasing Entropy, states that the entropy (disorder of particles) in the Universe never decreases. As the disorder in the Universe increases, the energy is transformed into less usable forms. The third law of thermodynamics (described by Walter Hermann Nernst in 1906, based on the idea of a temperature of absolute zero first articulated by Baron Kelvin in 1848), also known as the Law of Absolute Zero, tells us that all molecular movement stops at a temperature called absolute zero, or 0 Kelvin (2273°C). Since temperature is a measure of molecular movement, the temperature of absolute zero can be approached, but it can never be reached.

Articles on that refer to Laws of Thermodynamics

The Age of Intelligent Machines, Chapter Four: The Formula for Intelligence By Ray Kurzweil
The Age of Spiritual Machines: Glossary By Ray Kurzweil
Chapter One: The Law of Time and Chaos By Ray Kurzweil
Prolegomenon to a General Biology By Stuart Kauffman
Parallel universes, the Matrix, and superintelligence By Michio Kaku
Online Chat with Ray Kurzweil and European Schoolnet By Ray Kurzweil
Ubiquity Interviews Ray Kurzweil By Ray Kurzweil

Related Links

Laws of Thermodynamics
Thermodynamics at